Summary by Carina…
Management deals with creating organizations, order, and stability while leadership has to do with creating energy, thrust, alignment, focus, and commitment.
Performance-maintenance theory by Misumi and Peterson has 2 dimensions:
- Initiating structures: Initiating structure behaviors included those related to defining and organizing what roles, establishing clear patterns of organization, communication, and developing ways of getting work done.
- Consideration: Consideration behaviors included those related to developing warm and nurturing work relationships and those related to developing trust and respect among coworkers.
Managerial grid by Blake and Mouton has two factors:
- Focus on production: Leads a person to emphasize results, order, speed, and quality.
- Focus on people: Emphasizes the needs and feelings of people.
Leaders are either task oriented or relationship oriented (Fiedler, Hersey, and Blanchard). Task vs people and managing vs leading!
- Undesirable form of leadership.
- Involves manipulation; quid pro quo > ‘If you do this for me, I will do that for you’.
- Definition: Occurs when one or more persons engage with others in such a way the leader and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality.
- Is a process by which change (Transformation) is introduced to individuals and/or organizations.
- Leaders: Use of articulation and impression management practices.
- Impression management is related to how leaders express themselves to create meaning and influence.
- Charismatic leaders are exceptionally expressive individuals who employe rhetoric to persuade, influence, and mobilize others.
- Charismatic leaders demonstrate a concern for the individual needs to followers, treat followers on a one-to-one basis, and encourage followers to look at old problems with new ways.
Transformational and charismatic leadership related: An important dimension is the intent and willingness to communicate about the leader’s agenda.
To measure charismatic leadership and its components: Multifactor leadership questionnaire (MLQ) measures four dimensions:
- Idealized influence
- Inspirational motivation
- Intellectual stimulation
- Individualized consideration
Kent, T. W., Crotts, J. C. & Azziz, A. (2001): Four factors of transformational leadership behavior. Leadership & Organization Development Journal 22(5). 221-229.