Four factors of transformational leadership behavior

Summary by Carina…

Management deals with creating organizations, order, and stability while leadership has to do with creating energy, thrust, alignment, focus, and commitment.

Performance-maintenance theory by Misumi and Peterson has 2 dimensions:

  1. Initiating structures: Initiating structure behaviors included those related to defining and organizing what roles, establishing clear patterns of organization, communication, and developing ways of getting work done.
  2. Consideration: Consideration behaviors included those related to developing warm and nurturing work relationships and those related to developing trust and respect among coworkers.

Managerial grid by Blake and Mouton has two factors:

  1. Focus on production: Leads a person to emphasize results, order, speed, and quality.
  2. Focus on people: Emphasizes the needs and feelings of people.

Leaders are either task oriented or relationship oriented (Fiedler, Hersey, and Blanchard). Task vs people and managing vs leading!

Transactional leadership:

  • Undesirable form of leadership.
  • Involves manipulation; quid pro quo > ‘If you do this for me, I will do that for you’.

Transformational leadership:

  • Definition: Occurs when one or more persons engage with others in such a way the leader and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality.
  • Is a process by which change (Transformation) is introduced to individuals and/or organizations.

Charismatic leadership:

  • Leaders: Use of articulation and impression management practices.
  • Impression management is related to how leaders express themselves to create meaning and influence.
  • Charismatic leaders are exceptionally expressive individuals who employe rhetoric to persuade, influence, and mobilize others.
  • Charismatic leaders demonstrate a concern for the individual needs to followers, treat followers on a one-to-one basis, and encourage followers to look at old problems with new ways.

Transformational and charismatic leadership related: An important dimension is the intent and willingness to communicate about the leader’s agenda.

To measure charismatic leadership and its components: Multifactor leadership questionnaire (MLQ) measures four dimensions:

  1. Idealized influence
  2. Inspirational motivation
  3. Intellectual stimulation
  4. Individualized consideration

Leading vs Managing



Kent, T. W., Crotts, J. C. & Azziz, A. (2001): Four factors of transformational leadership behavior. Leadership & Organization Development Journal 22(5). 221-229.

Back to the overview…


3 comments on “Four factors of transformational leadership behavior

  1. Pingback: Master’s Program | Sebastian Kaiser

  2. I miss the ‘Four Factors’.. so my summary of this paper is as short as this:

    F1-related to behaviors establishing a team unity and forming a sense of identity with a larger whole, fostering collaboration. Secondly, behaviors empowering or enabling the formed team to accomplish goals.

    F2-related to having a clear sense of the future = a vision, that is continuously discussed with others in a way that is inspiring and uplifting for others.

    F3-related to the ability of leaders to establish and hold a particular and consistent ‘self’, emotional consistency, persistence = keep hold of the vision and not get distracted by demands that could shift focus or change direction of the vision

    F4-related to quality of leaders communication style.. = both verbal and non verbal ability to transfer ideas to others

  3. Tom and I considered the description of the 4 factors at the end of the page and summarized them as:
    A transformational leader should have the following capabilities:
    Factor 1: team-building (creating we-ness)
    Factor 2: transport Vision
    Factor 3: focus on objectives
    Factor 4: good communicater

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